Acne is common human skin disease mostly found in adults during their teenage.Characterized by seborrhoea (red skin), comedones ( blackheads), papules (pinheads), pustules (pimples), nodules, etc.
Acne affects skin over face, the upper part of the chest, back where skin contains hair follicles, sebaceous glands.
Mostly, acne is seen in adolescents because of increased testosterone levels or androgens.
Causes of Acne:
Acne develops as blockages in hair follicles. Hyperkeratinization and formation of a plug of keratin and sebum is the earliest change.
- Increased sebaceous glands, increased secretion of sebum is cause for acne.
- Sebaceous glands are blocked by sebum, dead skin cells can cause inflammation forms pustules.
- Increased testosterone increases the secretion of sebum that’s why acne common in young adults.
- Acne increases during puberty and during menses.
- Acne increases in hypothyroid, Cushing syndrome, PCOD.
- Acne increases in pregnancy.
- Acne increases in menopause due to decrease in estradiol , progesterone.
- Propionibacterium is anaerobic bacteria causes acne.
- Diet – high glycemic food, high sugar diet, milk products, chocolates, etc. causes acne.
Signs and Symptoms:
Acne includes seborrhea (increased sebum secretion), comedones, papules, pustules.Scars are formed by inflammation of dermis caused by acne by deposition excessive collagen formation in process of healing the wound.
Ice pick scars, car box scars, hypertrophied scars are various types of scars. cystic acne.Pigmented scars are the result of formation cystic acne. They often leave an inflamed red mark.